12. State definition: Govt, Parliament and Legislatures both at Centre and States and Union
13. Law: ordinance, order, bye-law, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usage
Laws of force: laws passed by Legislature in operation in particular areas.
14. Right to EQUALITY: Any person is equal before lawwithing Indian territory.
15. No Discrimination on grounds of: religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth for: access to Public convienences (shops, restaurants, hotels, entertainment places, use of wells, tanks, ghats, roads, public resorts (maintained wholly by State/ dedicated to public usage)
15(3): permission to make special provisions for women & children
15(4): permission to make special provisions for SC/ST/socially backward (1 st Amendment 1951)
15(5): permission for provisions in admission to educational insti inlc pvt instis, whether aided or unaided (93 rd Amendment 2005)
16. Euality of OPPURTUNITY in public employment. Provisions for reservation to Scs/Sts..
Maximum reservation however should not be more than 50%.
17. Abolition of Untouchability
18. Abolition of titles. (Foreign titles are also not accepted).
19. Right to FREEDOM:
• speech & expression
• assemble peacefully & disarmed
• form unions & associations
• move freely throughout Indian territory (some exception- check for it)
• reside and settle in any part of country
• practice & carry any profession/trade/business/occupation
20. Protection in respect of convition for offences.
• Not to be punished for greater crime concurred.
• Not punished twice for same crime
• accused person can’t be witness against himself
21. Protection of life and personal liberty.
21(1): Free & compulasory education to 6-14 yrs of children.
22. (1) No custody without being informed, and right to choose legal practitioner
(2) Arrested person to be brought before magistrate before 24 hrs. (excl. Travelling and other)
(4) No detention can extend 3 months unless Advisory board/Judges of a High court report